Next Generation Composites

3D weaving design pattern software orthogonal layer to layer interlock

3D woven fabric visual

3D Weaving Technology

3D weaving is the method of producing 3D woven preforms that have certain thickness, shape and inner pattern design. Preforms woven by 3D weaving technology have 3 (X-Y-Z) sets of yarns instead of 2 (X-Y) compared to traditional weaving technology. It is possible to manufacture near net shape and complex net shape preforms directly from the 3D weaving machine.

3Dwoven large panel carbon fiber aramide glass silica

3D woven layer to layer angle interlock fabric

3D weaving is a crucial technology for the development of isotropic high performance composites. Thanks to through the thickness yarns in the 3D woven composites, there is no risk of delamination compared to 2D laminate composites and other production techniques of composites.

According to application of the end product, there are superabundant weaving structures possible to be created by the 3D weaving technology. The most common pattern designs used in 3D weaving structures are: orthogonal, layer to layer angle interlock and through the thickness angle interlock. Besides the weave architecture, the fiber type is a drastic factor in 3D woven fabrics which directly effects mechanical, thermal and physical properties and resin system injection process.

3Dwoven carbon fiber block billet panel with 3D weaving technology

3D woven 50 mm thick orthogonal fabric

3D Woven Composites

Composite materials are created by the combination of two or more materials  according to the desired mechanical, thermal and physical properties. Composites mainly consist of two elements: reinforcement material and matrix material. Reinforcement material is important for strength and stiffness properties of composites. Besides, matrix material is effective on fracture toughness and corrosion resistance as well as conductivity properties of composite materials. 3D woven composite is a type of fiber reinforced composite which is created by the resin impregnation of 3D woven net shape fabrics  with VARTM(Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding) technology.

There are some crucial points that we scrutinize about the RTM process in 3D woven composites:

  • Resin impregnation to the 3D woven fabric must be flawless.
  • Resin system selection must be done according to the fiber type and preform dimensions.
  • Resin system selection must be done according to the end use conditions of the composite material.

As 3D woven preforms have many design parameters, it is important to choose the right resin system for technical aspects of the application.
It is crucial to adjust the right injection pressure and vacuum parameters for each different preform and resin system.

While impregnating resin into the 3D woven composite; fiber volume ratios, pattern types, preforms net shape, fiber types, fiber content ratios, RTM mould surfaces are all effective factors to the impregnation quality. Therefore, from the beginning of a project, all these parameters have to be considered all together.

Advantages of 3D Woven Materials

  • Fabrics are directly woven into complex net shapes. 
  • There are yarns in X, Y, Z directions with different pattern combinations.
  • High strength with the aid of durability between layers.
  • High fiber volume and stiffness because of fibers noncrimp design capability and automated production.
  • Improved impact resistance and Compression After Impact (CAI) thanks to Z yarn fibers that increasing strength between layers.
  • With the help of a unique designed software, fibers can be arranged according to the mechanical, thermal and design requiremets that is expected in the end product.
  • Possibility to choose different fiber types such as carbon fiber, aramide, glass etc. in the weaving process and produce hybrid structures.
  • There is practically no delamination between layers.
  • 3D weaving technology reduces the cost of standart composite parts’ production with mass production capability.

Our Capabilities

  • 3D Weaving Machine

We are capable of designing, producing and modifying 3D weaving machines according to the requirements of the 3D woven preform.

Design and production of these machines are made in the house with the knowledge of textile machinery knowhow for more than 60 years.

  • 3D Woven Fabric Production

3D woven fabrics are almost isotropic structures. Therefore it is critical to design and produce 3D woven fabrics supposing that the behavior of the end product is not only like a composite but also like a metal.

Our engineers think, design and produce the 3D woven fabrics considering it is a totally unique technology.

  • 3D Woven Composites Production

Each 3D woven preform has its own impregnation standarts. Our engineers are over seasoned about impregnating and curing resin to create 3D woven composites.

We produce our own RTM moulds according to the design and technical aspects of preforms and resin systems. The impregnation is done with our VARTM system which is specifically designed to produce 3D woven composites.

3D weaving machine

3D weaving machine setup