Advanced Weaving and
Composite Technology
Advanced Weaving and
Composite Technology
Advanced Weaving and
Composite Technology
Advanced Weaving and
Composite Technology

What is 3D Weaving?

3D weaving; It is a preform production technology that can be produced with a unique weaving machine consisting of 3-axis fibers with a particular geometry and internal pattern structure.

In addition to the weft and warp fibers found in traditional weaving production methods, the final woven product has a certain thickness thanks to the fiber weaving technology in the Z axis. Particularly designed machines and programs are used for preform production with 3D weaving technology. Various fiber types like carbon, glass and aramid can be used in 3D weaving technology

Considering the application of the end product, there are extensive weaving structures possible to create via 3D weaving technology. The most common pattern designs used in 3D weaving structures are: orthogonal, layer to layer angle interlock and through the thickness angle interlock. Besides the weave architecture, the fiber type is an essential parameter in 3D woven preforms which directly effects mechanical, thermal and physical properties.

3D Woven Carbon Fiber Fabric
3D Woven Fabric Structure
3Dwoven large panel carbon fiber aramide glass silica
3D Woven Carbon Preform

What is 3D Woven Composite?

3D Woven Carbon Fiber Composite Parts

Composite is the combination of two or more materials called reinforcement and matrix. The mechanical, thermal and physical properties of these materials are effective in determining the properties of the final product. There are different methods of composite production such as, lamination, pultrusion, lay up, fiber placement and 3d weaving.

3D woven composites are manufactured by applying resin to the custom-engineered 3D woven preforms. The weaving pattern design of the preform, the type of fiber used, the axial fiber ratios, the preform density, the properties of the resin system and the resin transfer process are extremely important in determining the properties of the final product. By changing these parameters, it is possible to produce composites with desired properties.

3D Woven Carbon Fiber Composite Billet
3D Orthogonally Woven Composite Panel

Advantages of 3D Composite

  • 3D woven preforms can be produced directly in complex geometries.
  • There is no delamination problem (separation between layers) in 3D woven composite structures.
  • There are fibers in three directions (X-Y-Z) with different pattern combinations in preform.
Layer-to-layer Woven Composite
3D Woven Tube Preform
3D Woven H Preform
  • No resin-rich region like noodle is formed in the junction regions of the T- Pi - H - X etc. geometries..
  • High fiber density, rigidity and standard production can be made thanks to the non-crimp fiber fabrics and the fully automatic production 3D weaving technology.
  • Due to the fibers in the thickness direction in the preform, not only delamination is prevented but also high impact resistance and compression after impact values (CAI) can be obtained in 3D woven composites.
  • By means of the 3D weaving pattern software and application, the reinforcing fibers in the preform can be woven in the specified direction and density considering the requirements of the final product. So that the final product has superior mechanical and thermal properties.
  • Hybrid structures can be produced by using different fiber types (carbon fiber, aramid fiber, fiberglass, silica fiber, quartz fiber, etc.).
  • 3D woven preforms are able to produce in a rigid structure as well as in a flexible form. Its flexible structure take the form of mold easily in RTM (resin transfer molding) processes and curved structures such as fan blades can be produced.
3D Woven Ti Preform
X-Y-Z Axis Fabric Preform
  • Cylindrical, conical, variable thickness or curved pieces can be produced as standard though weaving pattern software and automation.
  • 3D composites can be produced in block form and desired geometries are able to obtain with this form by removing chips on the CNC machine. There is no delamination problem during and after the machining process.
  • 3D composites can be cut smoothly with high pressure water jet technology. The Z fibers and/or pattern connection structure inside ensures that the part does not undergo any separation between the layers.
  • 3D wovens composite provides price advantage in high volume composite productions.
3D Weave Cylindrical Pre-form
Carbon Fiber Composite CNC Machining

Usage Areas Of 3D Composites

Missiles and Rockets

It is used as combustion chamber insulation material, engine insulation, nozzle, refractory, radome and bulkhead.

3D Kompozit Füze ve Roketlerde Kullanımı


Turbine engine fan blades, fan motor case, outlet guide vane (OGVs), carbon brake, landing gear, airframe T-Pi-H etc. used as carrier profile.

3D Kompozit Uçaklarda Kullanımı


It is used as gyroscope flywheel, reaction wheel, power-storage devices.

3D Kompozit Uydularda Kullanımı


It is used as heat shield and thermal protection systems with high temperature resistance and superior mechanical properties.

3D Kompozit Uzay Araçlarında Kullanımı

Armored Vehicles

It is used as light and durable mine armor.

3D Kompozit Zırhlı Araçlarda Kullanımı

Marine Vehicles

It is used as a lightweight propeller with low acoustic noise and high mechanical strength.

3D Kompozit Deniz Araçlarında Kullanımı Pervane